SUBROUTINE iau_STARPV ( RA, DEC, PMR, PMD, PX, RV, PV, J )
*+
* - - - - - - - - - - -
* i a u _ S T A R P V
* - - - - - - - - - - -
*
* Convert star catalog coordinates to position+velocity vector.
*
* This routine is part of the International Astronomical Union's
* SOFA (Standards of Fundamental Astronomy) software collection.
*
* Status: support routine.
*
* Given (Note 1):
* RA d right ascension (radians)
* DEC d declination (radians)
* PMR d RA proper motion (radians/year)
* PMD d Dec proper motion (radians/year)
* PX d parallax (arcseconds)
* RV d radial velocity (km/s, positive = receding)
*
* Returned (Note 2):
* PV d(3,2) pv-vector (AU, AU/day)
* J i status:
* 0 = no warnings
* 1 = distance overridden (Note 6)
* 2 = excessive velocity (Note 7)
* 4 = solution didn't converge (Note 8)
* else = binary logical OR of the above
*
* Notes:
*
* 1) The star data accepted by this routine are "observables" for an
* imaginary observer at the solar-system barycenter. Proper motion
* and radial velocity are, strictly, in terms of barycentric
* coordinate time, TCB. For most practical applications, it is
* permissible to neglect the distinction between TCB and ordinary
* "proper" time on Earth (TT/TAI). The result will, as a rule, be
* limited by the intrinsic accuracy of the proper-motion and radial-
* velocity data; moreover, the pv-vector is likely to be merely an
* intermediate result, so that a change of time unit would cancel
* out overall.
*
* In accordance with normal star-catalog conventions, the object's
* right ascension and declination are freed from the effects of
* secular aberration. The frame, which is aligned to the catalog
* equator and equinox, is Lorentzian and centered on the SSB.
*
* 2) The resulting position and velocity pv-vector is with respect to
* the same frame and, like the catalog coordinates, is freed from
* the effects of secular aberration. Should the "coordinate
* direction", where the object was located at the catalog epoch, be
* required, it may be obtained by calculating the magnitude of the
* position vector PV(1-3,1) dividing by the speed of light in AU/day
* to give the light-time, and then multiplying the space velocity
* PV(1-3,2) by this light-time and adding the result to PV(1-3,1).
*
* Summarizing, the pv-vector returned is for most stars almost
* identical to the result of applying the standard geometrical
* "space motion" transformation. The differences, which are the
* subject of the Stumpff paper referenced below, are:
*
* (i) In stars with significant radial velocity and proper motion,
* the constantly changing light-time distorts the apparent proper
* motion. Note that this is a classical, not a relativistic,
* effect.
*
* (ii) The transformation complies with special relativity.
*
* 3) Care is needed with units. The star coordinates are in radians
* and the proper motions in radians per Julian year, but the
* parallax is in arcseconds; the radial velocity is in km/s, but
* the pv-vector result is in AU and AU/day.
*
* 4) The RA proper motion is in terms of coordinate angle, not true
* angle. If the catalog uses arcseconds for both RA and Dec proper
* motions, the RA proper motion will need to be divided by cos(Dec)
* before use.
*
* 5) Straight-line motion at constant speed, in the inertial frame,
* is assumed.
*
* 6) An extremely small (or zero or negative) parallax is interpreted
* to mean that the object is on the "celestial sphere", the radius
* of which is an arbitrary (large) value (see the constant PXMIN).
* When the distance is overridden in this way, the status, initially
* zero, has 1 added to it.
*
* 7) If the space velocity is a significant fraction of c (see the
* constant VMAX), it is arbitrarily set to zero. When this action
* occurs, 2 is added to the status.
*
* 8) The relativistic adjustment involves an iterative calculation.
* If the process fails to converge within a set number (IMAX) of
* iterations, 4 is added to the status.
*
* 9) The inverse transformation is performed by the routine iau_PVSTAR.
*
* Called:
* iau_S2PV spherical coordinates to pv-vector
* iau_PM modulus of p-vector
* iau_ZP zero p-vector
* iau_PN decompose p-vector into modulus and direction
* iau_PDP scalar product of two p-vectors
* iau_SXP multiply p-vector by scalar
* iau_PMP p-vector minus p-vector
* iau_PPP p-vector plus p-vector
*
* Reference:
*
* Stumpff, P., Astron.Astrophys. 144, 232-240 (1985).
*
* This revision: 2009 November 12
*
* SOFA release 2012-03-01
*
* Copyright (C) 2012 IAU SOFA Board. See notes at end.
*
*-----------------------------------------------------------------------
IMPLICIT NONE
DOUBLE PRECISION RA, DEC, PMR, PMD, PX, RV, PV(3,2)
INTEGER J
* Smallest allowed parallax
DOUBLE PRECISION PXMIN
PARAMETER ( PXMIN = 1D-7 )
* Largest allowed speed (fraction of c)
DOUBLE PRECISION VMAX
PARAMETER ( VMAX = 0.5D0 )
* Julian years to days
DOUBLE PRECISION Y2D
PARAMETER ( Y2D = 365.25D0 )
* Radians to arcseconds
DOUBLE PRECISION DR2AS
PARAMETER ( DR2AS = 206264.8062470963551564734D0 )
* Days to seconds
DOUBLE PRECISION D2S
PARAMETER ( D2S = 86400D0 )
* AU (meters)
DOUBLE PRECISION AUM
PARAMETER ( AUM = 149597870D3 )
* Speed of light (AU per day)
DOUBLE PRECISION C
PARAMETER ( C = D2S/499.004782D0 )
* Maximum number of iterations for relativistic solution
INTEGER I,IMAX
PARAMETER ( IMAX = 100 )
INTEGER IWARN
DOUBLE PRECISION W, R, RD, RAD, DECD, V, X(3), USR(3), UST(3),
: VSR, VST, BETST, BETSR, BETT, BETR, OD, ODEL,
: DD, DDEL, ODD, ODDEL, D, DEL, UR(3), UT(3)
* - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
* Distance (AU).
IF ( PX.GE.PXMIN ) THEN
W = PX
IWARN = 0
ELSE
W = PXMIN
IWARN = 1
END IF
R = DR2AS / W
* Radial velocity (AU/day).
RD = D2S * RV * 1D3 / AUM
* Proper motion (radian/day).
RAD = PMR / Y2D
DECD = PMD / Y2D
* To pv-vector (AU,AU/day).
CALL iau_S2PV ( RA, DEC, R, RAD, DECD, RD, PV )
* If excessive velocity, arbitrarily set it to zero.
CALL iau_PM ( PV(1,2), V )
IF ( V/C .GT. VMAX ) THEN
CALL iau_ZP ( PV(1,2) )
IWARN = IWARN + 2
END IF
* Isolate the radial component of the velocity (AU/day).
CALL iau_PN ( PV(1,1), W, X )
CALL iau_PDP ( X, PV(1,2), VSR )
CALL iau_SXP ( VSR, X, USR )
* Isolate the transverse component of the velocity (AU/day).
CALL iau_PMP ( PV(1,2), USR, UST )
CALL iau_PM ( UST, VST )
* Special-relativity dimensionless parameters.
BETSR = VSR / C
BETST = VST / C
* Determine the inertial-to-observed relativistic correction terms.
OD = 0D0
ODEL = 0D0
ODD = 0D0
ODDEL = 0D0
BETT = BETST
BETR = BETSR
DO 1 I=1,IMAX
D = 1D0 + BETR
DEL = SQRT(1D0 - BETR*BETR - BETT*BETT) - 1D0
BETR = D*BETSR + DEL
BETT = D*BETST
IF ( I .GT. 1 ) THEN
DD = ABS(D-OD)
DDEL = ABS(DEL-ODEL)
IF ( I.GT.2 .AND.
: DD.GE.ODD .AND.
: DDEL.GE.ODDEL ) GO TO 2
IF ( I .GE. IMAX ) IWARN = IWARN + 4
ODD = DD
ODDEL = DDEL
END IF
OD = D
ODEL = DEL
1 CONTINUE
2 CONTINUE
* Replace observed radial velocity with inertial value.
IF ( BETSR .NE. 0D0 ) THEN
W = D + DEL/BETSR
ELSE
W = 1D0
END IF
CALL iau_SXP ( W, USR, UR )
* Replace observed tangential velocity with inertial value.
CALL iau_SXP ( D, UST, UT )
* Combine the two to obtain the inertial space velocity.
CALL iau_PPP ( UR, UT, PV(1,2) )
* Return the status.
J = IWARN
* Finished.
*+----------------------------------------------------------------------
*
* Copyright (C) 2012
* Standards Of Fundamental Astronomy Board
* of the International Astronomical Union.
*
* =====================
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* =====================
*
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*
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*
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*
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*-----------------------------------------------------------------------
END